10 May Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibnitz
Dead: 14 November 1716
He was a prominent German polymath and philosopher in the history of mathematics and the history of philosophy.
His most notable accomplishment was conceiving the ideas of differential and integral calculus, independently of Isaac Newton's contemporaneous developments.
Mathematical works have generally favored Leibniz's notation as the conventional expression of calculus.
It was only in the 20th century that Leibniz's law of continuity and transcendental law of homogeneity found mathematical implementation (by means of non-standard analysis).
He became one of the most prolific inventors in the field of mechanical calculators.
While working on adding automatic multiplication and division to Pascal's calculator, he was the first to describe a pinwheel calculator in 1685 and invented the Leibniz wheel, used in the arithmometer, the first mass-produced mechanical calculator.
He also refined the binary number system, which is the foundation of all digital computers.